วันจันทร์ที่ 18 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2556

Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery, most plastic surgery is not cosmetic; plastic surgery includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns.


Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC.. Sushruta, the father of Surgery, made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak originally in Sanskrit were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD. The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.

British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by native methods. Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar Vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine from 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods. Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world by 1815. Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.

Aulus Cornelius Celsus, who lived in the first century AD, described plastic surgery of the face, using skin from other parts of the body

The ancient Egyptians and Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions, [some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.

In 1465, Sabuncu's book, description, and classification of hypospadias was more informative and up to date. Localization of urethral meatus was described in detail. Sabuncuoglu also detailed the description and classification of ambiguous genitalia. [Citation needed] In mid-15th century Europe, Heinrich von Pfolspeundt described a process "to make a new nose for one who lacks it entirely, and the dogs have devoured it" by removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it in place. However, because of the dangers associated with surgery in any form, especially that involving the head or face, it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that such surgery became common.

Up until the techniques of anesthesia became established, surgeries involving healthy tissues involved great pain. Infection from surgery was reduced by the introduction of sterile techniques and disinfectants. The invention and use of antibiotics, beginning with sulfonamide and penicillin, was another step in making elective surgery possible.

In 1793, Chopart performed operative procedure on a lip using a flap from the neck. In 1814, Joseph Carpue successfully performed operative procedure on a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments. In 1818, German surgeon Carl Ferdinand von Graefe published his major work entitled Rhinoplastik. Von Graefe modified the Italian method using a free skin graft from the arm instead of the original delayed pedicle flap.

The first American plastic surgeon was John Peter Mettauer, who, in 1827, performed the first cleft palate operation with instruments that he designed himself. In 1845, Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach wrote a comprehensive text on rhinoplasty, entitled Operative Chirurgie, and introduced the concept of reoperation to improve the cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed nose.

In 1891, American otorhinolaryngologist John Roe presented an example of his work, a young woman on whom he reduced a dorsal nasal hump for cosmetic indications. In 1892, Robert Weir experimented unsuccessfully with xenografts (duck sternum) in the reconstruction of sunken noses. In 1896, James Israel, a urological surgeon from Germany, and in 1889 George Monks of the United States each described the successful use of heterogeneous free-bone grafting to reconstruct saddle nose defects. In 1898, Jacques Joseph, the German orthopedic-trained surgeon, published his first account of reduction rhinoplasty. In 1928, Jacques Joseph published Nasenplastik und Sonstige Gesichtsplastik.

Why Do People Want Cosmetic Surgery?

By Laura Agadoni on June 24, 2010

Cosmetic surgery has increased in popularity.

It used to be somewhat of an embarrassment to admit that you had cosmetic surgery. But, since its increased popularity began in the late1990s, it's really no big deal if you get it done or not. Cosmetic surgery has improved with technological advances, such as laser surgery, and provides people with more natural-looking results, according to the Medicine Net web site.

Cosmetic and Reconstructive Surgery

People undergo cosmetic or reconstructive surgery to look younger or to change a feature they don't like. Many people feel young, but they don't look as young as they feel and they want to reverse the aging process. Some people have physical birth defects, such as a cleft palate or an ear deformity. Others have had trauma or injury from dog bites, burns or diseases, such as breast cancer. Keep in mind that cosmetic surgery probably will not change your outlook on life or your social life, according to WebMD. You need to be realistic about your expectations.

Reasons to Get Cosmetic Surgery

People generally get cosmetic surgery to alter a body part that they are not happy with. This can be a breast augmentation or reduction, a rhinoplasty (nose job) or liposuction. Laser hair removal and dermabrasion, where you sand off the outer layer of your skin to reduce wrinkles, are also cosmetic surgeries, according to the Teens Health website.

Most Popular Cosmetic Surgeries

Cosmetic surgery is on the rise. More than 10 million people had surgical and non-surgical cosmetic surgery in 2008, according to the Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Research website. This is an increase of 162 percent since 1997, when collecting statistics began. The top surgical procedures, as of 2008, were breast augmentation, liposuction, eyelid surgery, rhinoplasty and abdominoplasty (tummy tuck). The top nonsurgical procedures were Botox, laser hair removal, hyaluronic acid (Restylane/Perlane, Juvederm and Hylaform), chemical peel and laser skin resurfacing.

Ask Yourself Why

Before you have cosmetic surgery, you should ask yourself why you want it. Some people get addicted to having multiple procedures, because they may have a psychological problem, according to the Dr. Phil website. You should first fix whatever psychological problems you may have before getting cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic surgery won't solve your psychological issues. When it doesn't, some people mistakenly think that getting more will. If you perceive yourself as fat or ugly and reject yourself, surgery will not make you happy. Getting surgery because someone else wants you to is not a good reason, either.

Have Realistic Expectations

Cosmetic surgery will probably not change your life, but it can give you a feeling of self-confidence if you have realistic expectations, according to WebMD. You should pick a surgeon with whom you are comfortable so that you and your surgeon are on the same page. Most people consider cosmetic surgery for five years before having it done.

17 Celebrity Before-And-After Plastic Surgery Disasters
Most people in Hollywood—arguably the most image-conscious place on the planet—have reportedly had some nips and tucks. Even icons like Marilyn Monroe reportedly had a little work done.
But some stars have taken going under the knife way to the extreme and the results aren't pretty.
These 1 celebrities paid up to $1 million dollars for puffy lips and stretched-out faces. We found some compilation videos on YouTube that showcase the worst of the worst.
There's one model who's so puffy from Botox you'll barely recognize her. Plus, a rock star who barely looks human.

Amanda Lepore is a 44-year-old transgender model and recording artist. Her repeated anti-aging attempts left her looking like this.


Guns N' Roses' 50-year-old frontman Axl Rose reportedly got cheek implants and a face lift.
Former French First Lady Carla Bruni's puffy face is reportedly the result of Botox

"Splash" actress Daryl Hannah, 51, denies ever having plastic surgery and says it makes people "look like Muppets." But her lips and cheeks look fuller.

The Duchess of Alba, who is Spanish royalty, has reportedly had repeated Botox injections. In 2011, the 57-year-old married a man 24 years her junior.

Reality star Heidi Montag, 25, had 10 procedures in one day, including a facelift and a nose job. She now says she regrets the procedures.
Former Playboy playmate Shauna Sand's lip injections have totally changed the appearance of her face.
34-year-old British glamour model Katie Price has gone through extensive surgery, including a nose job and lip injections.

Actor Mickey Rourke is one of the few actors to admit to having plastic surgery. He said he went to the "wrong guy" to fix his boxing injuries back in the '90s.



Television actress Nikki Cox was reported to undergo cheek and lip implants at just 34-years-old.


Paul Stanley from Kiss apparently had a nose job to give his profile more definition. He is also reported to have had a face lift.


Pete Burns is best known as the singer from the hit "You Spin Me Round (Like A Record)." He made a documentary about his plastic surgery nightmare.

Fashion Icon Donatella Versace's looks have changed drastically in the past 10 years.



Soap opera actress Joan Van Ark, best known from "Dallas" and "Knot's Landing," shocked attendees of a charity event she attended looking completely different.

Finnish escort Johanna Tukiainen, who shot to fame after a sex scandal with the country's foreign minister, has undergone numerous procedures in recent years.


Italy's Michaela Romanini used to be considered one of the most beautiful women in the country. Now she's unrecognizable.


Former beauty queen and television presenter Bruna Felisberto reportedly had a nose job and cheek implants.



10 Best Plastic Surgery Makeovers


We've all seen countless cases of bad plastic surgery, but the good cosmetic procedures are much harder to spot. Celebrities are also reluctant to admit that they're not naturally as gorgeous as they appear, so proving that they had work done is sometimes impossible to do. However, with help from the site Good Plastic Surgery, we've selected a few of our favorite "makeovers" that we're positive came as a result of the surgeon's scalpel rather than the cosmetics counter.

Diane Kruger

German actress and former fashion model Diane Kruger seems to have gotten some new breast implants. They're not too big and not too small -- perfect!

Kate Beckinsale

Kate has always been beautiful, but her nose job, tooth veneers, and possible gum-reduction (not to mention a good eyebrow waxing!) refined her look and made her even more stunning.

Scarlett Johansson

With just a slight refinement to her formerly-bulbous nose, Scarlett looks amazing.

Michael Douglas

Michael Douglas is currently 66 years old, and considering what he has been through these past few years (he battled cancer, his wife was hospitalized for bipolar disorder, his son went to jail, etc.) we think he looks pretty great! His most recent subtle face lift did not iron out all of his charisma wrinkles, giving him a more natural look befitting an aging Hollywood icon.

Ashlee Simpson

In one of the most well-known examples of good plastic surgery, Ashlee Simpson swapped her large Roman nose with a slimmer, straight version in 2006. Though she denied having work done at first, her nose job was so obvious that it really changed her entire appearance! While she was always pretty, her new nose suits her face much better.

Jennifer Aniston

Jennifer Aniston does not deny that she has had not one, but two nose jobs to "correct a deviated septum," (yeah right!) but some people think her plastic surgery addiction goes beyond just slimming down her naturally-wide nose. There are claims that Jen also indulges in face lifts, Botox, and other facial fillers. Some people also think Jen underwent a breast augmentation in 2010, but we're not sure if this is evidence of a boob job or just good old-fashioned Photoshop.

Geri Halliwell

In the 1990's, Ginger Spice, AKA Geri Halliwell, was the most buxom of her girl group, The Spice Girls. However, by 2001 Geri had dieted her breasts away, causing her to get a pair of saline implants that suit her petite frame nicely. Geri has also put on a few pounds, which look good on her as well!

Timothy Olyphant

Hunky actor Timothy Olyphant got himself a new set of veneers, and we think they make his smile even better looking than before! We're also wondering if there's some Botox at work on his line-free forehead and around his eyes? (Link | Photo)

Lady Gaga

People still love to make fun of Lady Gaga's "Poker Face," but she looks much better after having a nose job! We're glad that the surgeon didn't go overboard; she still looks like herself, not someone else entirely. (Link)

Tara Reid

Yes, yes... we are as shocked as you are to find Tara Reid on a list of BEST plastic surgeries! Considering the horrible state of Tara's stomach and breasts, it is nice to see that she found a good plastic surgeon for her recent facial work. The fine lines around Tara's eyes have been completely erased, and the tip of her nose has been slimed as well.
Read more at http://www.oddee.com/item_97834.aspx#JPH13qsfGzjVq1Ey.99

The benefits of cosmetic surgery are fantastic – both physically and emotionally. You will not only look and feel younger, thinner, and prettier, but your self-esteem will skyrocket as well. Many cosmetic surgery patients discover that they are more outgoing, more personable, and more confident.
Procedures like liposuction and breast reduction can greatly enhance your life. People who have had these procedures find themselves more physically active and much healthier than they ever would have imagined.
Individuals who undergo cosmetic surgery find themselves emotionally more confident. Patients are no longer self conscious about their physical defects.

You can focus on living your life instead of worrying about the way others are looking at you.

The Risks of Cosmetic Surgery...
Cosmetic surgery, like any procedure, carries with it some degree of risk. Complications are rare, but they do occur. Modern procedures have greatly diminished most risks. However, these complications might be enhanced if you have certain health conditions, such as diabetes.
In order to curtail these risks, it is important that you choose an experienced plastic surgeon that has a proven track record of success with minimal complications.
The surgeons we have chosen to be part of our medical team are committed to using the latest technology to ensure your safety.

The Benefits of Cosmetic Surgery far outweigh the Risks!

We live in a competitive society where looking our best has a direct effect on our personal and business relationships. Just as we head to the gym and plan our diets to feel better, more and more of us are considering cosmetic surgery to improve our looks as well as our self esteem.
In fact, a recent survey conducted by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) found that 85% of adult Americans would undergo a plastic surgery procedure if given the chance.

Plastic surgery benefits both
Young and old psychologically,
Physically and emotionally.

Our body image, or perception of how we look, often controls our life, both directly and indirectly. Plastic surgery can help us with this image struggle which often monopolizes our perception of the world around us.
Our perception of ourselves is reflected in our personality and treatment of those they come in contact with us. If we are not happy with the way we look, we often project it through negative body language or some other form of communication.

Plastic surgery, whether cosmetic or reconstructive, can help to improve a person's psychological outlook on life.

Many adults suffered emotional trauma as children and many children suffer today because of the cruelty of their peers and the teasing they receive. "You can't imagine how it feels not to be afraid of being teased anymore...They'd call out, 'Is that a nose or a hose?'...It got so that when I looked in the mirror, I didn't see what I was actually seeing, only what they were saying about me".
In this case, cosmetic surgery greatly benefited this patient's emotional state. Being accepted by one's peers is sometimes the most important and consuming factor of childhood.

"Plastic surgery gains wider acceptance as a method for enhancing body image and self confidence, it is being considered at an increasingly younger age".

Plastic surgery benefits can be both physical and emotional, both
External and internal.

The physical and external benefits of plastic surgery can be multi-faceted. The first thing that many people notice after plastic surgery is that their bodies seem more proportional or balanced. Whether a person opts to have surgery on their face, hips, breasts or thighs the aim is to sculpt the body in a way that looks natural. The result often allows people to look more like they feel like they should look. This may sound strange, but often a nose that is too large for a particular person's face or a bust that is too large or too small can blur all of this person's other features making them seem disproportionate. Surgeons aim to correct this by taking each individual's body into consideration before deciding on a desired result.

The physical result of plastic surgery often produces a healthier look and often people who undergo surgery see this healthy look permeate their entire lifestyle. People who have surgeries like liposuction and breast reduction usually feel more comfortable in their clothes, that their new bodies allow them to participate in physical activities that they wouldn't have considered before surgery. Plastic surgery can open new doors to people who have previously lived their lives sheltered. They find themselves participating in activities they never would have in the past such as swimming or aerobics, due to their renewed confidence.

Whether a person chooses to undergo plastic surgery to improve their lifestyle or to improve their look, there will always be emotional benefits when a person is finally able to feel comfortable in their body. Many people find that they are more outgoing, personable and confident when they become accustomed to their transformation and this heightened sense of self-esteem can be a benefit that lasts a lifetime.

Whatever the surgery, to have the option of being able to change
What one has always perceived as their fault, can be a
tremendous emotional boost...

The benefits of cosmetic surgery don't stop at childhood,
however, but are felt throughout any age group.

Older, or aging people have found an outlet in cosmetic surgery that psychologically makes them feel younger and more vibrant as they start to look better. " Improving their appearance may allow them to be accepted by a younger group or may vault them into a more meaningful life".
Especially in the case of the elderly, a healthy appearance is sometimes the determining factor in whether they feel or are healthy. "Psychologically, patients receive a powerful boost from such surgery".
Older patients of cosmetic and reconstructive surgery benefit psychologically, as well as physically from improving their body image. Whether it's removing fat through liposuction, or merely giving a facelift to someone who is feeling in the dumps about their older appearance, all of these things help to improve the person spiritually as well as physically.

In today's society, inevitably,
attractiveness aids in social

Recent studies have shown that persons of pleasing appearance are accepted more readily by peers and by seniors and are more, successful
. This, maybe true anywhere: in the work-force, in the dating and social night life, as well as anywhere one goes for either service or in any type of communication related atmosphere. Good looks are often helpful in receiving more attention as well. To achieve this social satisfaction, many often look to plastic surgery to take away that extra lump or bump, or improve some other fault one might find with themselves.

"Thus an individual whose body image is aberrant or different will find it hard to form meaningful interpersonal associations and may become a social outcast, suffering psychological damage inherent in this particular type of rejection".
Plastic surgery, is somewhat of a miracle cure for patients in these unfortunate cases. Abnormalities can fortunately be reconstructed by such surgery. An example of this kind of surgery would be a clef palate or some other born-defect. If one has a poor self-image or is unhappy with the way they look, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery is their answer.
"Psychologically, patients receive a powerful boost from such surgery". People no longer have to be unhappy with who they are because of a feature that has always bothered them. Plastic surgery leads to a healthier outlook on life and can be a milestone in one's life.

Today, plastic surgery can achieve what years of exercise can't, and brings a different meaning to the phrase " growing old gracefully". Changing one's appearance in the slightest of ways can make a world of difference to that person. The rate of cosmetic procedures is increasing rapidly, and with it a new found answer to a happier and healthier life. "Aesthetic plastic surgery can no longer be considered vanity surgery, as it was in the past. Its benefits to the patient are tremendous". Plastic surgery also helps individuals to be more out-going and proves to boost one' s self-esteem.

Plastic surgery is currently experiencing unprecedented popularity with continuing advancements of technologies for the diverse array of procedures. This has inevitably led to superior results with reduced complications and side effects, leading to a higher degree of customer satisfaction. Consequently more and more people are feeling the immense benefits from improving their image through plastic surgery.

The benefits of both reconstructive and cosmetic surgery prove to outweigh the risks; plastic surgery benefits the patient not only physically, but emotionally and psychologically. Fortunately, today there is an answer to such unhappiness that one might feel when looking in the mirror. Plastic surgery is an option to feel good again. It is an option that can benefit one for an entire lifetime.


Photo Credit

Female Plastic Sugery image by Infs from Fotolia.com

Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/17-celebrity-before-and-after-plastic-surgery-disasters-2012-8?op=1#ixzz2LJhlST2e